The Peace Process and ceasefire agreement between the Government of India and the NSCN-IM is in its eleventh year. There have been several meetings of negotiations since the announcement of cease-fire in July 1997, both at international venues and in India. These negotiations have helped identify substantive political issues that are of concern for both the parties and helped ease the atmosphere of conflict between Indian forces and NSCN-IM and even made the possibility of the visit of the NSCN-IM leadership to India and the Naga areas. However in the last one year an atmosphere of mistrust regarding the negotiations has been developing. On the same hand a group of armed cadres launched a ‘unification’ process that has been rejected by both the factions of the NSCN. The ensuing confusion has led to an unprecedented fratricidal killings leading to the emergence of a general atmosphere of uncertainty. The opposition from the neighboring states to the demand for unification of Naga-inhabited territories continues. The 2001 Ceasefire extension to all Naga areas beyond the state of Nagaland had led to controversies. The people of the valley in Manipur resisted this move that led to mob violence, arson and burning of public buildings which were a setback to the peace process. Assam and Arunachal also joined the opposition to ceasefire extension. The context of coalition politics at this time further jeopardized the prospect of strengthening the peace process. Continuation of ceasefire agreement over the past eleven years witnessed relatively peaceful life for ordinary people and provided space for political and intellectual activities, robust cultural and religious life apart from collective civil society initiatives both within the State and outside the state. After a long gap of many years people also participated in the state elections though there was a call for boycott of elections. This eleven-year period also saw less of state repression and there was less of the fear of gun. This relative peace has meant a lot for the Naga people.

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